New Edition--Map of Mongolia and General Situation in Mongolia

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[Name of the country] Mongolia.

[area] 1,566,500 square kilometers.

[population] 2.533 million people (by the end of 2004). The Khalkha Mongolians account for about 80% of the country's population. There are also 15 ethnic minorities such as Kazakh, Dürbert, Bayard, and Buryatia. The main language is Khalkha Mongolian. Residents mainly believe in Lamaism.

[Capital] Ulaanbaatar. The population of about 870,000 (to early 2004). The average temperature is -2.9°C.

[Head of State] President Nambaryn Enkhbayar, elected in May 2005.

[Important holiday]

In the Mongolian language of the Spring Festival, the “White Moon” is the same date as the Tibetan New Year in China. It is the most solemn festival in Mongolia. It was formerly known as the “Herdsmen's Day” and was celebrated only in pastoral areas. In December 1988, the Mongolian people’s office of the Hural Bureau decided that the Spring Festival was a national holiday.

National Day - Nadamu on July 11th. In 1921, the people’s revolution led by the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party achieved victory. On July 10, a constitutional monarchy government was established in Kulun (now Ulaanbaatar). Mongolia will set its next day for the National Day. On June 13, 1997, the third meeting of the Central Committee of the National Committee of Mongolia decided to change the National Day to "National Day - Nadam". Nadam, Mongolian means "game" or "entertainment." It originally refers to the "men's three-competitive" (wrestling, horse racing, and archery) with a long history of the Mongolian nation. Now it refers to a collective entertainment activity held in ancient traditions. Strong national characteristics. From 1922, held on July 11 each year, it became a major component of Mongolian National Day activities.

[Profile] Landlocked country located in central Asia, bordering China in the east, south, and west, and neighboring Russia in the north. It is a typical continental climate with an average annual temperature of 1.56°C. The minimum temperature in winter can reach -50 °C, and the highest temperature in the Gobi region in summer is more than 40 °C.

Mongolia was originally called Outer Mongolia or Khalkha Mongolia. In December 1911, the Mongolian monarchy declared "autonomy" with the support of Tsarist Russia. In 1919, it gave up "autonomy." The victory of the People’s Revolution led by the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party in 1921 established a constitutional monarchy government in July of the same year. On November 26, 1924, the monarchy was abolished and the People’s Republic of Mongolia was established. In February 1945, the heads of state of the United States, the United States and the United Kingdom signed the Yalta agreement, which stipulated that "the status quo of the Outer Mongolia (People's Republic of Mongolia) must be maintained" and used it as one of the conditions for the Soviet Union to participate in the Japanese operations. On January 5, 1946, the then Chinese government recognized the independence of Mongolia. In February 1992, the name of the country was changed to "Mongolia."

[Politics] In 2005, the political situation in Mongolia was generally stable and the economy maintained its growth momentum. The foreign exchanges are active and we continue to pursue a “multi-pronged” foreign policy.

In May 2005, the presidential election was held nationwide and the Enkhbayar nominated by the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party was elected president. He was sworn in on June 24 of the same year.

[Constitution] The current constitution is the fourth constitution, adopted in January 1992 and effective on February 12 of the same year. The Constitution stipulates: Mongolia is an independent and sovereign republic; the civic democratic society that regards the establishment of humanity in its own country is a lofty goal; and in the absence of enacted laws, foreign military forces are prohibited from stationing in and passing through the territory of Mongolia; the state recognizes public ownership. And all forms of private ownership; the state respects religion, religion advocates the state; pursues peaceful foreign policy in accordance with universally recognized norms and principles of international law; and has freedom of religious belief and non-belief. According to the constitution, the name of the country is changed to "Mongolia," and a parliamentary system with a president is established.

[Parliament] The State Great Hural is the highest organ of state power and exercises legislative power. The National Grand Hural can propose to discuss any issues of internal and external policies and solve the following issues within its own special powers: approve, supplement and amend laws; determine the basis for internal and external policies; announce the President and the National Hural and its The date of election of members; the decision and replacement of the National Standing Committee of the Great Hural; the law promulgating the President’s election and recognition of its power; the removal of the President; the appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and members of the government; the composition and authority of the National Security Council; The National Great Hural is a one-chamber parliament. Its members are directly elected by Mongolian citizens by secret ballot for a term of four years. The president and vice-chairman of the National Great Hural are elected for a four-year term. The current National Great Hural was created in July 2004 with a total of 76 seats. According to an agreement reached between the Humane Revolutionary Party and the League, the current President of the National Great Haral is served by the two parties of the joint government for two years, and the Chairman of the Humane Party nomination shall be transferred to the League's nominee upon the expiration of his term of office. There are 7 standing committees in the State Great Hural. In June 2005, Zendu Nyamudurgui was elected as the President of the National Great Hural.

[Government] The highest executing authority of state power. The government members are appointed by the National Grand Hural. The current government was formed in January 2006 to form a joint cabinet for the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party and other parliamentary parties. The members of the government are: Prime Minister M. Enkhbold, Deputy Prime Minister E. Enkhsaikhan, Minister of Foreign Affairs N. N. Enkhbold, Minister of Law and Internal Affairs D. Odebayar, Minister of Industry and Trade Zha? Zahrul Saihan, the Minister of Food and Agriculture and Livestock, Deng Telbi, the Minister of Fuels and Power, Barıldenbaat, the Minister of Natural Environment, Iraqi Erdenebattle, the Minister of Health, Ragonda Lai, Minister of Mongolia (competing disaster prevention affairs) (vacant vacancies), Minister of Finance Nayaya Payatsai Khan, Minister of Defense Mi Sonom Pillah, Minister of Education, Culture, and Science Ehu Entubusin, Society Minister of Security and Labor Ruud Odenqimide, Minister of Transport and Tourism Zeng Zengler, Minister of Architecture and Urban Construction Jiang Nalanchatsalalat, Minister of Mongolia, and Director of Government Office Ladd, Minister of Mongolia (Supervisor of Technical Supervision) Uzhhorskyh.

[URL] (1) President's Website: http://

(2) Parliament Website: http://

(3) Government Website: http://

(4) Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: http://

(5) Mongolia News Agency website: http://

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 21 provinces and capitals: Hou Hang Ai Province, Bayan Ullah Province, Bayan Hunger Province, Burgan Province, Gobi Altai Province, East Gobi Province, Eastern Province, and China , Chabuhan Province, Chon Khao Province, South Gobi Province, Sukhbaatar Province, Seychelles Province, Central Province, Ubudsu Province, Kobdo Province, Kosugul Province, Kent Province, Hubei Province The province of Erhai, Dalhan, Uller, Gobi, Sumbel and Ulaanbaatar.

[Judiciary] The court exercises judicial power. The basic system of the court consists of the national Supreme Court and local courts at all levels. The National Supreme Court consists of judges and judges. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Gombat, took office in September 1999. Prosecutors are composed of the State Prosecutor's Office and the local prosecutors' offices. The Attorney-General of the Mongolian Al-Ahtan Huyagh took office in June 1999.

[Party] implements a multi-party system. According to media reports, as of April 2004, there were 14 registered political parties in Mongolia, mainly including:

(1) Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party: The ruling party. Founded on March 1, 1921, originally known as the Mongolian People's Party, was renamed the present name in March 1925. There are about 121,000 members. In February 1997, the party convened by the Party to determine the nature of the 22nd party is "a national-democratic middle-left party," and its theoretical basis is "democratic socialist ideology." The current Chairman is M. Enkhbold, General Secretary Sayyar Bayar, Secretary Chu Ulan, D. Idvorkhten, and Yun Oetgen Bayar.

(2) Mongolian Democratic Party: The largest opposition party. On December 6, 2000, it was formed by the merger of the Mongolian National Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Democratic Revival Party, the Religious Democratic Party, and the Democratic Party. It is claimed that there are more than 160,000 members. The purpose of the party is to attach importance to human development, human power and freedom, and to assume corresponding social responsibilities depending on the size of individual capabilities. The party’s goal is to consolidate Mongolia’s political independence; establish a reasonable and strong economic system; establish an open society; establish good governance; and closely link social development with the progress of the international community.

[important figures] Namubar Enkhbayar: President. Born in June 1958. In 1980 he graduated from the Moscow Gorky University. He studied in the UK, majoring in translation of literature and literary works. From 1980 to 1990 at the Mongolian Writers Association as a translator to the Executive Secretary. From 1990 to 1992, he served as the chief vice chairman of the government's Culture and Arts Development Committee. From 1992 to 2005, he was a member of the National Great Hural. From 1992 to 1996 as Minister of Culture. From 2000 to 2004 as prime minister. From 1996 to 2005, he served as general secretary and chairman of the People's Revolutionary Party. In August 2004, he was President of the National Great Hural (Secretary). He was elected president in May 2005 and took office in June. Understand English and Russian. The lady went to Le Mont, and had four children.

Zende Nyamudurji: Chairman of the National Great Hural (Secretary). Born in 1956. In 1981 he graduated from the Soviet Lawyers of the Leningrad State University. In 1989 he studied at the School of Management Science Development. From 1981 to 1988, he served as the prosecutor and director of the State Public Prosecutors Office. From 1988 to 1990, he was the first Deputy Attorney General of the Procuratorate of the Ministry of Military Affairs. In 1990, he was an expert of the Council of Ministers. From October 1990 to August 1992, he served as the First Deputy Minister of Law. Since 1992, he has been elected four times as a member of the National Great Hural. From 1992 to 1996, he served as Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Law, from 1996 to 2000, he served as Vice Chairman of the Party Committee of the People's Revolutionary Party, and from 2000 to 2004 as Minister of Law and Interior. July 1, 2005 was elected President of the National Great Hural. In 1989 he joined the Revolutionary Party. Once served as a member of the Humane Party Congress. Since 2001, he has been a member of the Revolutionary Party Leadership Committee. Married, with two children.

Mye Kampot. Enkhbold's resume: Prime Minister. Born in July 1964. In 1987 graduated from the National University of Mongolia program and economist. In 1996 and 1998, he went to Japan and Germany for further studies. Since 1987, he has worked for the Ulaanbaatar city government. In 1990 joined the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. In 1992, he was appointed deputy governor of Qinggetai District of Ulan Bator City, and in 1996 he was appointed Speaker of Qing Geertai District. In January 1999, he served as the chief executive (mayor) of Ulaanbaatar and a member of the leadership committee of the Humane Revolutionary Party. In June 2005, he was elected chairman of the Revolutionary Party. January 25, 2006 took office as Prime Minister. Married, with a son and a daughter.

[Economics] It mainly focuses on animal husbandry and has long implemented a planned economy. In 1991, it began to transition to a market economy and implemented the privatization of state-owned assets. In July 1997, the government passed the "Private Program for State-Owned Assets 1997-2000". The goal is to make the private economy dominate in the national economy.

In 2005, Mongolia’s macro economy as a whole performed smoothly, its fiscal revenue increased, foreign investment and foreign exchange reserves increased, and the exchange rate remained basically stable.

Gross domestic product (GDP, 2005): about 1.88 billion U.S. dollars

Per capita GDP: USD 737 (2005)

GDP growth rate of 6.2% (2005)

Currency Name: TUGRUG

Exchange rate (end of 2004): 1 US dollar = 1209 tugrik

Inflation Rate (to 2004): 11%

Registered unemployed (end of 2004): 35,600 people

(Source: Ministry of Finance and Economy of Mongolia)

[Resources] Rich underground resources. Among the more than 80 types of minerals that have been discovered are copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, uranium, lead, zinc, rare earth, iron, fluorite, phosphorus, coal, and petroleum. The national forest coverage rate is 8.2%.

[Industry] Mainly in light industry, food, mining and fuel power industry. The total industrial output in 2004 was 259 million U.S. dollars (calculated at comparable prices in 1995), an increase of 13% over the previous year, or US$29 million. Compared with 2000, mining increased by 31.0%, processing industry increased by 51.0%, electricity, energy, and water supply increased by 13.9%.

[Agriculture and animal husbandry] The output of agricultural products in recent years (Unit: 10,000 tons):

2002 2003 2004

Grain 12.5916.5013.85

Vegetables 3.975.964.92

Potato 5.197.878.02

(Source: Mongolia National Bureau of Statistics Bulletin)

Livestock husbandry is the basis of the traditional economic sector and the national economy. At the end of 2004, the number of livestock was 28 million, an increase of 10% over the previous year. In recent years, the status of various livestock stocks is as follows (Unit: 10,000):

2002 2003 2004

The total number of heads 236825302800

Camel 25.2225.5625.63

Horse 200200200

Cattle 190180180

Sheep 105010701170

Goat 91010601220

(Source: Ibid.)

[Services] Privatization of the service industry began in 1991. At present, the degree of privatization is nearly 100%. In 2002, post and telecommunications industry revenue was 38.7 billion tugrik; fixed telephone terminals reached 127,700, an increase of 7,000 over the previous year. According to media reports, as of September 2004, Meng mobile phone users reached 370,000, accounting for 15% of the national population.

(Source: Ibid.)

[Tourism] In 2002, foreign tourists entering Mengjing were 19,287 million, and earned foreign exchange of 120 million U.S. dollars. There are about 700 tourism bases, large and small hotels and restaurants in the country, with a total of more than 5,000 beds; there are more than 500 companies engaged in tourism services. The main hotels include Ulan Bator Hotel, Bayan Gawler Hotel, Genghis Khan Hotel, Continental Hotel, etc. The main tourist destinations are the ancient capitals of Harbin and Lin, the Lake of Kosugul, the tourist spots of Trelgir, South Gobi, the East Gobi and the Altai Hunting Area.

[Transportation] Mainly on railways and highways. In 2004, the total cargo volume was 21.6 million tons, an increase of 22.5% over the previous year; the total passenger volume was approximately 194 million, an increase of 15.7% over the previous year.

Railways: The total length of the railway is more than 1800 kilometers, and it is responsible for 4/5 of the national freight volume. In 2002, the total railway freight volume in the country was 11.637 million tons, an increase of 14.7% over the previous year; in 2002, the passenger volume was 4 million passengers, accounting for 97.1% of the previous year. .

Highways: The total length is 4,9250.0 kilometers, including 43665.9 kilometers of dirt roads, 1946.3 gravel roads, 1923.6 kilometers of improved roads and 1714.9 kilometers of asphalt roads. The total length of wooden bridges and concrete bridges is 27706.6 meters, of which 11287 meters are wooden bridges and 16419.3 meters are concrete bridges. Passenger volume in 2003 was 164 million person-times, an increase of 62.3% over the previous year; and cargo volume was 5,339,900 tons, an increase of 2.8 times over the previous year.

Water transport: In 2002, the cargo volume was 1800 tons, an increase of 5.9% over the previous year.

Air transport: The total length of the route is about 40,000 kilometers. In 2002, the passenger volume was 300,000 passengers, of which international passenger traffic was 200,000 passengers and domestic passenger traffic was 100,000 passengers. The freight volume was 2,400 tons, which was 82.8% of the previous year. There are regular flights between Beijing, Hohhot, Moscow, Irkutsk, Seoul, Tokyo, Osaka and Frankfurt. One international airport is Ulan Bator’s “Butte-Uha” airport. (Source: Ibid.)

[Financial Finance] In 2004, Mongolia's central government revenue (including various types of foreign aid) was 573 million U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 25.1%, and total expenditure (including the amount of foreign debts repaid) was 593 million U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 16.5%. Fiscal deficit of $20 million (Source: Ibid.)

At the end of 2005, the foreign exchange reserve was 298 million U.S. dollars. The total foreign debt of Mongolia was 1.34 billion U.S. dollars.

(Source: Asian Development Bank)

Mongolian Bank: Established in 1924, President O. Chu Longbat.

Mongolian Trade Development Bank: Founded in 1990, President Menghbat. In May 2002, the bank was privatized and 76% of its state-owned shares were acquired by Swiss-U.S. joint venture consortium for US$ 12.23 million.

[Foreign trade] has trade relations with 68 countries. Economic open policy. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the development of economic and trade cooperation with Western developed countries and Asian countries. The main conditions are as follows (in millions of U.S. dollars):

2002 2003 2004

Total 11.6013.8718.65

Import value 6.597.8710.12

Export value 5.016.008.53

Difference -1.16-1.87-1.58

The export products are mainly textiles, mineral products and livestock products; the imported products are mainly organic equipment, electrical appliances, food and textiles. The main trading partners are China, Russia, the United States, Japan and South Korea. (Source: Mongolia National Bureau of Statistics Bulletin)

[Foreign Investment] Since the 1990s, Mongolia has started to invest abroad, but the investment is very small.

Since 1992, Mongolia has started investing in China. As of the end of 1995, there were 31 Mongolian investment projects in China with an agreement amounting to 8.87 million U.S. dollars, and Mongolia actually invested 350,000 U.S. dollars.

[Foreign Capital] From 1990 to the end of 2004, 71 countries and regions including China, Russia, Japan, the United States, and South Korea directly invested in 3,902 investment projects in Mongolia, with a cumulative investment of approximately US$1.22 billion. Among them, 50% of foreign companies are small enterprises with investment of only 1-5 million US dollars. Major investment state-owned China, South Korea, Japan, the United States, Russia and so on. The main investment departments are mining, light industry, livestock product processing, commerce, and construction.

According to statistics from Mongolia, in 2004, China invested 127 million U.S. dollars in Mongolia and 415 investment projects, accounting for 50.2% and 53.8% of the foreign investment in Mongolia and the number of investment projects.

[Foreign aid] By 1990, the former Soviet Union had provided a total of 11.4 billion rouble loans to Mongolia. By the end of 2003, the Russian side had announced that it had cancelled 98% of the debt, Mongolia had repaid the remaining US$250 million, and the Mongolian-Russian debt issue was resolved. In 1991, Japan, the World Bank, etc. initiated the International Conference on Aid to Mongolia, and China participated as an observer. In November 2003, the tenth aid donor country meeting was held in Tokyo. The participants promised to provide Mongolia with 335 million U.S. dollars in aid and loans in 2004. All previous sessions have provided Mengyunnuo with US$3.56 billion in aid and actually implemented US$2.1 billion. The main aid countries (international organizations) are Japan (about 40%), ADB, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, the United States, Germany, Russia, and China.

[People's Life] From January 1, 1998, a five-day work system was implemented. In May 2002, the Mongolian government re-determined the minimum living standards. The minimum living standards in the five regions of the country range from 19100-24600 Tugrik. In December 2002, the Mongolian government meeting decided to set the monthly minimum wage standard to 30,000 Tugrik and implement it from January 1, 2003. In January 2004, the Mongolian government meeting decided to raise the minimum wage standard for labor to 40,000 tugriks starting from February 1. The minimum standard for social insurance funds' normal pension is set at 32000 tugrik.

[military] The Mongolian People's Army was founded on March 18, 1921. The President serves as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Since 1996, the civilian defense minister system has been implemented. The current Secretary of Defense is Ba Erdenbad. The general staff of the armed forces is independent from the Ministry of National Defense. The Government’s "Policy Agenda" adopted by the Mongolian parliament in 2000 clearly stipulated that the Mongolian national defense system reform and military reform policies must be resolutely implemented; the armed forces and the border defense force's weapons and equipment should be renewed; the building of the armed forces should be improved, the military reform should be deepened, and the military quality should be improved. The chief of staff of the armed forces was Major General Tao Gao. The compulsory military service system was implemented. Since 1998, substitution, contract military service, and compensatory service system have been added.

In 2004, there were 20,000 troops in total. In 1997, the organizational structure of the armed forces began to be adjusted. The organization system was transferred from the divisional system to the brigade system.

[Culture and education] Among the population over 15 years old, illiteracy accounts for about 2%. Implement the state universal free general education system. In 2004, 33,000 college students nationwide went to 183 universities, nearly 700 full-time general education schools, 550,000 students, and 90,000 kindergarten students. The major institutions of higher learning are: National University, University of Science and Technology, University of Education, National Agricultural and Animal Husbandry University, Medical University, Humanities University, University of Arts and Culture, etc. The main private universities are Otteng Tengger University, Mongolian Business College, Ukrainian Lambator College, Orkhon College, etc.

According to the Intergovernmental Agreement on Cultural and Educational Cooperation, Mongolia and 50 countries exchange students. Throughout 2003, there were 1,060 international students studying in China.

[Press Release] According to media reports, by July 2004, there were about 170 newspapers, 60 magazines, 30 broadcasts, and 35 televisions. The main newspapers are: "Daily": free publications, circulation of about 14,000; "Century News": free publications, circulation of about 10,000. "Today": Freedom of Publication, published on September 20, 1996, with a circulation of about 11,000 copies. "The Pravda": The newspaper of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party has a circulation of about 8,000 copies; "Suoying Bobao": the military newspaper; and other free journals such as "Ming Pao", "Democratic Newspaper" and "Mongolian News".

Mongolian News Service (Mongolia News Agency): Founded in 1921 and changed to the National News Agency in October 1957. Received news releases from Reuters, Xinhua News Agency, Ruta News Agency, United News Agency (Korea), India News Release Agency, etc. Now Moscow, Beijing, Bonn and Ulan-Ude have permanent correspondents.

Mongolia Radio (Ulaanbaatar Radio): National Radio. Founded in 1931, it was first broadcast on September 1, 1934, using Khalkha Mongolian. In 5 provincial broadcasters, the coverage rate is over 90%. The "Mongolian Voice" broadcast was used externally. In September 1964, it was broadcast in Mongolian and Chinese for the first time. In January 1965, it began broadcasting in English and was renamed "The Voice of Mongolia" in January 1997. At present, the radio broadcasts in 5 languages, including Mongolian, English, Chinese, Russian and Japanese, and is broadcasted for 8 hours a day.

Mongolian National Television (MTB): Created on September 27, 1967. Play about 10 hours of shows every day. In January 1991, the World News Network television program was broadcasted. In April 1995, Japan’s NHK TV program was broadcast. In addition, broadcasts from France, Germany, and Russia are also broadcast.

Ulan Bator TV (UBS): Founded on September 13, 1992. Daily show.

On December 20, 1994, a Mongolia-Russia joint venture “Space TV Company” launched a second set of Russian TV programs in Mongolia. In August 1995, it launched a cable television program.

"Eagle" TV station: The Mongolian-US joint venture private television station only broadcasts programs in Ulaanbaatar. In April 1996, Taiwan was established. The program was broadcast daily for about 9 hours. Among them, 30-40% of the programs were Mongolian-language programs, and the rest were mainly broadcasts of the US “CNN” program. The television station was once closed.

"MN-25 Channel": Established on September 26, 1996. The earliest private television station in Mongolia.

In 1995, cable television stations began broadcasting. At present, the Mongolian capital has established cable television stations such as “Sangsl”, “Great Mongolia”, “Lucky” and “prosperous Mongolia”.

[Foreign relations] The “Great Mongolian Foreign Policy Concept” adopted by the State Great Hural in 1994 stipulated that it will pursue an open, non-aligned, multi-pronged foreign policy of peace and emphasizes that “establishing friendly relations with Russia and China is a foreign policy of Mongolia. The primary task is to advocate "balanced exchanges with China and Russia and the development of a wide range of good-neighborly cooperation." At the same time, it attaches importance to the development of friendly exchanges and cooperation with Western developed countries such as the United States, Japan, Germany, Asia Pacific countries, developing countries, and international organizations. In December 2004, the resolution adopted by Mongolia’s Grand Hural stated that Mongolia actively pursues an independent, open, multi-pronged foreign policy consistent with stable development goals, and comprehensively consolidates its good-neighborly relations and cooperation with China and Russia, consolidating the development of Mongolia. The U.S. comprehensive partnership and cooperation will deepen and consolidate bilateral relations that have been developed with EU member states, expand development cooperation, develop bilateral relations with ASEAN member countries, and actively participate in the political and economic activities in Northeast Asia and Central Asia. Dialogue, active participation in the activities of the United Nations and other international agencies, seizing the opportunity to safeguard their own security.

As of November 2005, Mongolia has established diplomatic relations with 143 countries.

[Relationship with China] China and Mongolia established diplomatic relations on October 16, 1949. In the mid and late 1960s, the relationship between the two countries experienced a setback. Since the normalization of bilateral relations in 1989, the good-neighborly friendship and cooperation between the two countries have been developing smoothly. In 2003, the two countries announced the establishment of a partnership of good neighborliness and mutual trust. The Mongolian delegation to visit China in 2004 included: Prime Minister Enkhbayar transited Beijing, Premier Wen Jiabao met (January); Foreign Minister Erden Chulong (January); State Great Hural Chairman Tumur Oqi Seoul attends the 12th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Parliamentary Forum (APPE) held in Beijing (January); Zeng Dezhab, chairman of the Mongolian Journalists’ League (June); Daxie Jolin Temple; Kampala Dambazab visits China and meets Panchen (June); Ministry of Foreign Affairs’s Neighboring State Secretary Enkhtur and Information Director Muni Barbara lead a press delegation to visit the city of Aershan, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (August); Vice President of the National Grand Hural and Chairman of the Citizen’s Republican Party’s Oyun The general secretary of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, Ide Hurteng, and the Democratic Party’s General Secretary Gangsukh led their respective party delegations to attend the Third International Conference of Asian Political Parties (September); Chairman of the Mongolian-China Friendship Association, Jiang Chang Nob (September) Foreign Minister Menghe Olgill (October); Major General Song Debu, Director of the State Border Prevention Headquarters, visits Xinjiang (October); Minister of Industry and Trade Bartbold (November); National Great Hural Security and Foreign Policy Standing Committee Chairman Enkhsai Khan visits II Haut (November); Minister of Transport and Tourism calls Bart attend held in Shanghai China International Tourism Fair (November); Owen Citizens Will Republican chairman (December). The Chinese delegation to Mongolia includes: Tian Lipu, deputy director of the State Intellectual Property Office (April); Sun Jiazheng, Minister of Culture, visiting Mongolia and attending the "Chinese Culture Week" (April); Deputy Chief of General Staff Xiong Guangbiao (April); Deputy Secretary of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Bartle led a friendly delegation of the Communist Party of China (May); Vice Minister of Health Pei Jing (June); Deputy Director of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage Tong Mingkang (July); Auditor General of the National Audit Office Li Jinhua (August Xu Dunxin (Aug.); Xia Lin, deputy editor-in-chief of Xinhua News Agency (August); Yang Yemaman, vice-president of the Red Cross Society (August); Liu Wenjie, vice president of CCPIT; September); Erenhot Mayor Chen Heping (September); Tibet Autonomous Region Vice Chairman Bai Maqilin (October); Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Chairman Yang Jing (October); Erenhot Municipal Party Committee Secretary Song Xi De (December). According to statistics from China Customs, the total bilateral import and export volume between China and Mongolia in 2005 was US$860 million, an increase of 24% year-on-year, of which China’s exports were US$319 million, up 36.7% year-on-year, imports were US$541 million, up 17.5% year-on-year, and China’s deficit was 222 million. Dollars. Chinese Ambassador to Mongolia: Gao Shumao. Location: No. 5 Youth Avenue, Sukhbaatar District, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Mailbox: 672. Telephone: (0097611) 320955, 323940, 311985. Fax: (0097611) 311943. Mongolian ambassador to China: Batthur. Location: No. 2, Xiushui North Street, Jianguomenwai Avenue, Chaoyang District, Beijing. Telephone, 65321810. fax. Business office phone.

Mongolia has economic and trade relations with Taiwan Province of China. According to statistics from Mongolia, since 1991, Taiwan has provided a total of 12.6 million U.S. dollars in aid to Mongolia; in 1998-2001, the total trade volume of Mongolia and Taiwan was 12.597 million U.S. dollars.

[Relationship with Russia] The two countries established diplomatic relations on November 5, 1921. In 2004, Mongolia-Russia relations continued to advance. The main contacts included: Russian Foreign Minister Ivanov’s visit to Mongolia (January); Mongolian Minister of Industry and Trade Gangjorlig and Russian Vice Minister of Industry, Science and Technology Mirtin met in Moscow (January); Chairman of the National Assembly of the Republic of Buryatia of the Russian Federation Rubsanoff visiting Mongolia (February); Prime Minister Enkhbayar visiting Russian Irkutsk (March); Russia Kemero Visit to Mongolia by Turin Governor Tureyev (June); Enkhbayar, President of Mongolian National Grand Hural, meets with Russian Federation Committee Chairman Mironov in Monzabudhan Province (August); Russian Auditor General Jiepashen visits Mongolia (August); Yugoslav President Potapov visits Mongolia (August); Mongolian Secretary of State for National Defense Mozambique Basan Hu went to the Republic of Buryatia to attend the Battle of Haraha River The 65th Anniversary of Victory (September); Golovin, Governor of the Irkutsk region of Russia, visited Mongolia (November).

[Relationship with the United States] Mongolia and the United States established diplomatic relations on January 27, 1987. In 2004, Meng Mei mainly had the following exchanges: General Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, visited Mongolia (January); U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Armitage visited Mongolia (January); and Mongolian Finance Minister Ulan visited the United States (4) (Month); U.S. announced that it will be listed in the “Millennium Challenge Fund” program (May); Mongolia and U.S. held the “Find Khan-2004” joint military field exercise at the Tawang Tolgoi training center (May); The Chief of Staff, Major General Tao Gao, visited the US Marine Corps Command (May); the President of Mongolia Bayon Bandy visited the United States (July); the commander of the US Pacific Command; Admiral Fargo visited Mongolia (July); Secretary of State Kelly's visit to Mongolia (October); Major-General Bashan Hu, State Secretary of the Ministry of National Defense, attended the Mongolia-U.S. defense consultation held in Washington (November).

[Relations with European Countries] In 2004, Mongolia and European countries mainly engaged in the following exchanges: Natural Environment Minister Vals Balad visited Austria (January); Mongolian Government President Enkhtubusin visited Bulgaria (January) Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Mongolian National Great Hural Economy, O'Caller visited Austria (February); Deputy Foreign Minister Bart Baold attended the 9th meeting of the Mongolian Intergovernmental Committee held in Helsinki (February); the Mongolian Parliament. Deng Beiler, Chairman of the Standing Committee on Political Power Construction, visited Germany (February); Major General Mao Gao, Chief of the Mongolian Army, visited Belgium, France and Luxembourg (March); and the State Secretary of the Swiss Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denicen, visited Mongolia (April); Mongolian Finance Minister Ulan visits Britain and the Netherlands (April); Mongolian President Bagabandy visits Turkey and attends Mongolian Cultural Week (April); Meng Chamber of Commerce and Industry Chairman Denbele visits Austria (May); Democratic Party Vice Chairman Gong Dalai visits Germany (May); Mongolian Auditor General Zabzima visits Turkey (May); Belgian Parliament House Chairman Dekro visits Mongolia (July); Bulgaria examines Nicorov visits Mongolia (July); Polish Foreign Minister Zimozevic visits Mongolia (August); Turkish Education Minister Cherik visits Mongolia (August); Italian Deputy Foreign Minister Anthony visits Mongolia (September); Director of the Supervisory Commission Sekouwa visits Mongolia (September); Norwegian Speaker Cosmo visits Mongolia (October); Austrian Minister of UNESCO Geller attends the Austrian Day held in Mongolia (October); Mongolia National Grand Hural Chairman Enkhbayar visits Britain (November); Mongolian Minister Gandhi visits Turkey (November); Mongolian Foreign Minister Mongh Olgill visits Bulgaria and attends the CSCE Foreign Ministers' Meeting as a guest (December); Turkish Interior Minister Akzo visits Mongolia (December); Mongolian Minister of Architecture and Urban Construction Batbayar visits Turkey (December).

[Relations with Asia and other countries] In 2004, Mongolia had the following exchanges with Asia and other countries: Mongolian National Hural Chairman Tumur Oqier visited Vietnam (January); Premier Meng Enkhbayar visited India (January); North Korea Commodities Fair held in Mongolia (February); Minister of Industry and Trade Gang Zhuolige visited South Korea (February); Enkh Tubushin, Director General of the Mongolian Government visited South Africa (February); The first meeting of the Mongolian Kyrgyz Inter-Governmental Economic, Trade, Technology, and Culture Cooperation Joint Committee took place in Bishkek. The Mongolian chairman and the Minister of Law and Interior, Nidam Mulderji, led a delegation (February) and the Mongolian Kazakstan Intergovernmental Committee The third meeting was held in Astana, and the Minister of the Interior of the Law of Mongolia, Niam Mudorgi, led a delegation (March); the Chairman of the State Great Hural Economy Standing Committee O’Keeh visited Kuwait (April); the President of Mongolia Bagabandi visits Egypt (April); Mongolian Deputy Minister of Social Security and Labor Chinchowrige visits South Korea (May); Vietnamese Prime Minister Phan Van Khai visits Mongolia (May); Mongolia’s Cuban Inter-Governmental Commission for Economic and Technical Cooperation Meeting Held in Ulaanbaatar (June); President of the Korean Court of Justice, Cui Zhongying, visited Mongolia (June); North Korean Deputy Foreign Minister Kim Yong Il visited Mongolia (August); Japanese Minister of Environment Koike Yuriko visited Mongolia (August) Japanese Foreign Minister Kawaguchi Junko visits Mongolia (August); Chairman of the Kyrgyz People’s Congress, Bolubayev’s visit to Mongolia (September); Mongolian President Bagabandy visits Canada (October); Mongolian Minister of Natural Environment, Barth Bao Lude participated in the meeting of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea’s environment ministers held in Japan (December); Mongolian President Bagabandy visited the DPRK (December).

[Relationship with International Organizations] In 2004, Mongolia and the international organizations mainly engaged in the following exchanges: Bin Abdul Rinpoche, Vice Chairman of the Mongolian National Hural, attended the 110th General Assembly of the Inter-Parliamentary Union held in Mexico (April); Minister of Economy Wu Lan attends the 37th annual meeting of the ADB Council held in Seoul (May); Special Mongolian President’s Special Envoy and Mongolian Foreign Minister Erden Chulong attended the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Tashkent Summit. The meeting passed an observer on the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to Mongolia. Status Resolution (June); Vice-President of the National Hurricane Hulun, Long Dai Jiangcang attended the 111th session of the Inter-Parliamentary Union held in Geneva (September); Vice President of the Mongolian National Hural, Long Dai Jiangcang attended The 5th annual meeting of the Asian Parliament Peace Association held in Pakistan (November).